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Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems
We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known asof 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated usingthe multiepoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching thetrigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distancesestimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refutecompanions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog, in the Catalogsof Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiß, in Hipparcosresults, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey. Ourfindings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanetsystems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. Weconfirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six starsin five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions toexoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in theWashington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions.At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five(including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside intriple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, andγ Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planetsat roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellarcompanions at projected separations of ~20 AU, similar to the Sun-Uranusdistance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarfcompanions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicatesthat solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicityenvironments-singles, binaries, and triples-and that planets survive thepost-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.

Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets
We present a catalog of nearby exoplanets. It contains the 172 knownlow-mass companions with orbits established through radial velocity andtransit measurements around stars within 200 pc. We include fivepreviously unpublished exoplanets orbiting the stars HD 11964, HD 66428,HD 99109, HD 107148, and HD 164922. We update orbits for 83 additionalexoplanets, including many whose orbits have not been revised sincetheir announcement, and include radial velocity time series from theLick, Keck, and Anglo-Australian Observatory planet searches. Both thesenew and previously published velocities are more precise here due toimprovements in our data reduction pipeline, which we applied toarchival spectra. We present a brief summary of the global properties ofthe known exoplanets, including their distributions of orbital semimajoraxis, minimum mass, and orbital eccentricity.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. The Keck Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Dynamical Stability and Habitability of the γ Cephei Binary-Planetary System
It has been suggested that the long-lived residual radial velocityvariations observed in the precision radial velocity measurements of theprimary of γ Cephei (HR 8974, HD 222404, HIP 116727) are likelydue to a Jupiter-like planet orbiting this star. In this paper, thedynamics of this planet is studied, and the possibility of the existenceof a terrestrial planet around its central star is discussed.Simulations, which have been carried out for different values of theeccentricity and semimajor axis of the binary, as well as the orbitalinclination of its Jupiter-like planet, expand on previous studies ofthis system and indicate that, for the values of the binary eccentricitysmaller than 0.5, and for all values of the orbital inclination of theJupiter-like planet ranging from 0° to 40°, the orbit of thisplanet is stable. For larger values of the binary eccentricity, thesystem becomes gradually unstable. Integrations also indicate that,within this range of orbital parameters, a terrestrial planet, such asan Earth-like object, can have a long-term stable orbit only atdistances of 0.3-0.8 AU from the primary star. The habitable zone of theprimary, at a range of approximately 3.05-3.7 AU, is, however, unstable.

Chemical Composition of the Planet-harboring Star TrES-1
We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star ofthe transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution KeckHIRES and Hobby-Eberly Telescope HRS spectra, we have determinedabundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc,Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting averageabundance of <[X/H]>=-0.02+/-0.06 is in good agreement withinitial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare theelemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars withplanets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. Weinvestigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elementsin TrES-1 and other stars with planets and find no statisticallysignificant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperatureTc. We use published abundances and kinematic information forthe sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and severalstatistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms oftheir likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk ofthe Milky Way. TrES-1 is found to be very likely a member of thethin-disk population. By comparing α-element abundances of planethosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find thatmetal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0.0) stars with planets appear to besystematically underabundant in [α/Fe] by ~0.1 dex with respect tocomparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, butsystematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by differentgroups cannot be ruled out.

Gravitational scattering by giant planets
We seek to characterize giant-planet systems by their gravitationalscattering properties. We do this to a given system by integrating itnumerically along with a large number of hypothetical small bodies thatare initially in eccentric habitable zone (HZ)-crossing orbits. Ouranalysis produces a single number, the escape rate, which represents therate at which the small-body flux is perturbed away by the giant planetsinto orbits that no longer pose a threat to terrestrial planets insidethe HZ. Obtaining the escape rate this way is similar to computing thelargest Liapunov exponent as the exponential rate of divergence of twonearby orbits. For a terrestrial planet inside the HZ, the escape ratevalue quantifies the "protective" effect that the studied giant-planetsystem offers. Therefore, escape rates could provide information onwhether certain giant-planet configurations produce a more desirableenvironment for life than the others. We present some computed escaperates on selected planetary systems, focusing on effects of varying themasses and semi-major axes of the giant planets. In the case of ourSolar System we find rather surprisingly that Jupiter, in its currentorbit, may provide a minimal amount of protection to the Earth.

About putative Neptune-like extrasolar planetary candidates
Context: .We re-analyze the precision radial velocity (RV) data of HD208487 by the Anglo-Australian Planet Search Team, HD 190360, HD 188015,HD 114729 by the California and Carnegie Planet Search Team, and HD147513 by the Geneva Planet Search Team. All these stars are supposed tohost Jovian companions in long-period orbits. Aims.We test a hypothesisthat the residuals of the 1-planet model of the RV or an irregularscatter of the measurements around the synthetic RV curve may beexplained by the existence of additional planets in short-period orbits.Methods. We performed a global search for the best fits in the orbitalparameters space with genetic algorithms and simplex method. This makesit possible to verify and extend the results with an application ofcommonly used FFT-based periodogram analysis for identifying the leadingperiods. Results. Our analysis confirms the presence of a periodiccomponent in the RV of HD 190360 that may correspond to a hot-Neptuneplanet. We found four new cases in which the 2-planet model yieldssignificantly better fits to the RV data than the best 1-planetsolutions. If the periodic variability of the residuals of single-planetfits indeed has a planetary origin, then hot-Neptune planets may existin these extrasolar systems. We estimate their orbital periods as in therange of 7-20 d and minimal masses of about 20 masses of the Earth.

Abundances of refractory elements in the atmospheres of stars with extrasolar planets
Aims.This work presents a uniform and homogeneous study of chemicalabundances of refractory elements in 101 stars with and 93 without knownplanetary companions. We carry out an in-depth investigation of theabundances of Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Na, Mg and Al. The newcomparison sample, spanning the metallicity range -0.70< [Fe/H]<0.50, fills the gap that previously existed, mainly at highmetallicities, in the number of stars without known planets.Methods.Weused an enlarged set of data including new observations, especially forthe field "single" comparison stars . The line list previously studiedby other authors was improved: on average we analysed 90 spectral linesin every spectrum and carefully measured more than 16 600 equivalentwidths (EW) to calculate the abundances.Results.We investigate possibledifferences between the chemical abundances of the two groups of stars,both with and without planets. The results are globally comparable tothose obtained by other authors, and in most cases the abundance trendsof planet-host stars are very similar to those of the comparison sample.Conclusions.This work represents a step towards the comprehension ofrecently discovered planetary systems. These results could also beuseful for verifying galactic models at high metallicities andconsequently improve our knowledge of stellar nucleosynthesis andgalactic chemical evolution.

Can stellar wobble in triple systems mimic a planet?
The first extrasolar planets were detected by the measurement of thewobble of the parent star. This wobble leads to the periodic modulationof three observables: the radial velocity, the position on the sky andthe time of arrival of periodic signals. We show that the same wobble,and therefore the same modulation of the three observables, can be dueto the presence of a more distant binary stellar companion. Thus, the observation of the wobble does not, by itself, constitute a proof of aplanet detection. In particular, astrometric confirmation of a wobbledoes not necessarily provide a sufficient proof of the existence of aplanet candidate detected by radial velocity. Additional conditions,which we discuss here, must be fulfilled. We investigate the observedwobble for the planet candidates already detected and we find that, foreach case, a wobble due to a binary stellar companion can beexcluded.
However, for apparent Saturn-like planets in wideorbits, there may be an ambiguity in future detections, especially inspaceborne astrometric missions. We conclude that, in some cases, adefinitive proof of the presence of a planet requires furtherobservations such as direct imaging.

Oxygen abundances in planet-harbouring stars. Comparison of different abundance indicators
We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundances in 155solar type stars, 96 of which are planet hosts and 59 of which form partof a volume-limited comparison sample with no known planets. EWmeasurements were carried out for the [O I] 6300 Å line and the OI triplet, and spectral synthesis was performed for several OH lines.NLTE corrections were calculated and applied to the LTE abundanceresults derived from the O I 7771-5 Å triplet. Abundances from [OI], the O I triplet and near-UV OH were obtained in 103, 87 and 77dwarfs, respectively. We present the first detailed and uniformcomparison of these three oxygen indicators in a large sample ofsolar-type stars. There is good agreement between the [O/H] ratios fromforbidden and OH lines, while the NLTE triplet shows a systematicallylower abundance. We found that discrepancies between OH, [O I] and the OI triplet do not exceed 0.2 dex in most cases. We have studied abundancetrends in planet host and comparison sample stars, and no obviousanomalies related to the presence of planets have been detected. Allthree indicators show that, on average, [O/Fe] decreases with [Fe/H] inthe metallicity range -0.8< [Fe/H] < 0.5. The planet host starspresent an average oxygen overabundance of 0.1-0.2 dex with respect tothe comparison sample.

A link between the semimajor axis of extrasolar gas giant planets and stellar metallicity
The fact that most extrasolar planets found to date are orbitingmetal-rich stars lends credence to the core accretion mechanism of gasgiant planet formation over its competitor, the disc instabilitymechanism. However, the core accretion mechanism is not refined to thepoint of explaining orbital parameters such as the unexpected semimajoraxes and eccentricities. We propose a model that correlates themetallicity of the host star with the original semimajor axis of itsmost massive planet, prior to migration, assuming that the coreaccretion scenario governs giant gas planet formation. The modelpredicts that the optimum regions for planetary formation shift inwardsas stellar metallicity decreases, providing an explanation for theobserved absence of long-period planets in metal-poor stars. We compareour predictions with the available data on extrasolar planets for starswith masses similar to the mass of the Sun. A fitting procedure producesan estimate of what we define as the zero-age planetary orbit (ZAPO)curve as a function of the metallicity of the star. The model hints thatthe lack of planets circling metal-poor stars may be partly caused by anenhanced destruction probability during the migration process, becausethe planets lie initially closer to their central star.

Chemical abundances of 22 extrasolar planet host stars*
We present observations of 22 extrasolar planet host stars and derivetheir stellar parameters. With the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra,we acquire accurate metallicities and the differential abundances for 15other elements and we discuss the relation between the abundance ratioand the metallicity. These sample stars are metal-rich relative to theSun, covering the range from -0.04 to 0.54 dex with the average [Fe/H]value of 0.15 +/- 0.12 dex, except for HD 37124, which has [Fe/H]=-0.45.The stars with planets show a slight overabundance pattern for [C/Fe]and [Mg/Fe], but [Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ti/Fe], [Cr/Fe], [Sc/Fe],[V/Fe], [Ni/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] are approximately solar in the sample stars.These stars also show slight underabundances for [O/Fe], [Ca/Fe] and[Mn/Fe]. The sulphur displays enhanced values, ranging from -0.10 to0.40 through the sample stars. These results are used to investigate theconnection between giant planets and high metallicity and to probe theinfluence of the process on the other elements.

Kinematics, ages and metallicities for F- and G-type stars in the solar neighbourhood
A new metallicity distribution and an age-metallicity relation arepresented for 437 nearby F and G turn-off and sub-giant stars selectedfrom radial velocity data of Nidever et al. Photometric metallicitiesare derived from uvby- Hβ photometry, and the stellar ages from theisochrones of Bergbusch & VandenBerg as transformed to uvbyphotometry using the methods of Clem et al.The X (stellar population) criterion of Schuster et al., which combinesboth kinematic and metallicity information, provides 22 thick-discstars. σW= 32 +/- 5 km s-1,= 154 +/- 6 km s-1 and<[M/H]>=-0.55 +/- 0.03 dex for these thick-disc stars, which is inagreement with values from previous studies of the thick disc.α-element abundances which are available for some of thesethick-disc stars show the typical α-element signatures of thethick disc, supporting the classification procedure based on the Xcriterion.Both the scatter in metallicity at a given age and the presence of old,metal-rich stars in the age-metallicity relation make it difficult todecide whether or not an age-metallicity relation exists for the olderthin-disc stars. For ages greater than 3 Gyr, our results agree with theother recent studies that there is almost no correlation between age andmetallicity, Δ([M/Fe])/Δ(age) =-0.01 +/- 0.005 dexGyr-1. For the 22 thick-disc stars there is a range in agesof 7-8 Gyr, but again almost no correlation between age and metallicity.For the subset of main-sequence stars with extra-solar planets, theage-metallicity relation is very similar to that of the total sample,very flat, the main difference being that these stars are mostlymetal-rich, [M/H]>~-0.2 dex. However, two of these stars have[M/H]~-0.6 dex and have been classified as thick-disc stars. As for thetotal sample, the range in ages for these stars with extra-solarplanetary systems is considerable with a nearly uniform distributionover 3 <~ age <~ 13 Gyr.

Magnetospheric radio emission from extrasolar giant planets: the role of the host stars
We present a new analysis of the expected magnetospheric radio emissionfrom extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) for a distance limited sample ofthe nearest known extrasolar planets. Using recent results on thecorrelation between stellar X-ray flux and mass-loss rates from nearbystars, we estimate the expected mass-loss rates of the host stars ofextrasolar planets that lie within 20 pc of the Earth. We find that someof the host stars have mass-loss rates that are more than 100 times thatof the Sun and, given the expected dependence of the planetarymagnetospheric radio flux on stellar wind properties, this has a verysubstantial effect. Using these results and extrapolations of the likelymagnetic properties of the extrasolar planets, we infer their likelyradio properties.We compile a list of the most promising radio targets and conclude thatthe planets orbiting Tau Bootes, Gliese 86, Upsilon Andromeda and HD1237(as well as HD179949) are the most promising candidates, with expectedflux levels that should be detectable in the near future with upcomingtelescope arrays. The expected emission peak from these candidate radioemitting planets is typically ~40-50 MHz. We also discuss a range ofobservational considerations for detecting EGPs.

An Analysis of the Condensation Temperature of Elements of Extrasolar Planetary Systems
Using high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of extrasolar planet-hostingstars, we obtained the atmospheric parameters, accurate metallicitiesand the differential abundance for 15 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S,Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni and Ba). In a search for possible signaturesof metal-rich material accreting onto the parent stars, we found that ,for a given element, there is no significant trend of increasing [X/H]with increasing condensation temperature Tc. In our sample ofplanet-harboring stars, the volatile and refractory elements behavesimilarly, and we can not confirm if there exists any significantdependence on the condensation temperature Tc.

Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.

Radial Velocities of Late-Type Field Subgiant Stars
High-dispersion coudé spectra were observed and measured for 43field subgiants of the G and K spectral types, with the intent ofsearching for hitherto undiscovered spectroscopic binaries. Statisticalanalysis of the measurements revealed no definite but two possible newbinaries. We present the data and discuss the statistical analysis usedto test for new binaries. Additionally, we discuss the techniques forhigh precision of radial-velocity measurement, and the systematic errorsthat interfere with that goal.

Five New Multicomponent Planetary Systems
We report Doppler measurements for six nearby G- and K-typemain-sequence stars that show multiple low-mass companions, at least oneof which has planetary mass. One system has three planets, the fourthtriple-planet system known around a normal star, and another has anextremely low minimum mass of 18 M⊕. HD 128311 (K0 V)has two planets (one previously known) with minimum masses (Msini) of2.18MJ and 3.21MJ and orbital periods of 1.26 and2.54 yr, suggesting a possible 2:1 resonance. For HD 108874 (G5 V), thevelocities reveal two planets (one previously known) having minimummasses and periods of (Msinib=1.36MJ,Pb=1.08 yr) and (Msinic=1.02MJ,Pc=4.4 yr). HD 50499 (G1 V) has a planet with P=6.8 yr andMsini=1.7MJ, and the velocity residuals exhibit a trend of-4.8 m s-1 yr-1, indicating a more distantcompanion with P>10 yr and minimum mass of 2MJ. HD 37124(G4 IV-V) has three planets, one having Msini=0.61MJ andP=154.5 days, as previously known. We find two plausible triple-planetmodels that fit the data, both having a second planet near P=840 days,with the more likely model having its third planet in a 6 yr orbit andthe other one in a 29 day orbit. For HD 190360, we confirm the planethaving P=7.9 yr and Msini=1.5MJ as found by the Geneva team,but we find a distinctly noncircular orbit with e=0.36+/-0.03, renderingthis not an analog of Jupiter as had been reported. Our velocities alsoreveal a second planet with P=17.1 days and Msini=18.1M⊕. HD 217107 (G8 IV) has a previously known ``hotJupiter'' with Msini=1.4MJ and P=7.13 days, and we confirmits high eccentricity, e=0.13. The velocity residuals reveal an outercompanion in an eccentric orbit, having minimum mass ofMsini>2MJ, eccentricity e~0.5, and a period P>8 yr,implying a semimajor axis a>4 AU and providing an opportunity fordirect detection. We have obtained high-precision photometry of five ofthe six planetary host stars with three of the automated telescopes atFairborn Observatory. We can rule out significant brightness variationsin phase with the radial velocities in most cases, thus supportingplanetary reflex motion as the cause of the velocity variations.Transits are ruled out to very shallow limits for HD 217107 and are alsoshown to be unlikely for the prospective inner planets of the HD 37124and HD 108874 systems. HD 128311 is photometrically variable with anamplitude of 0.03 mag and a period of 11.53 days, which is much shorterthan the orbital periods of its two planetary companions. This rotationperiod explains the origin of periodic velocity residuals to thetwo-planet model of this star. All of the planetary systems here wouldbe further constrained with astrometry by the Space InterferometryMission.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by both NASA and theUniversity of California.

Can Life Develop in the Expanded Habitable Zones around Red Giant Stars?
We present some new ideas about the possibility of life developingaround subgiant and red giant stars. Our study concerns the temporalevolution of the habitable zone. The distance between the star and thehabitable zone, as well as its width, increases with time as aconsequence of stellar evolution. The habitable zone moves outward afterthe star leaves the main sequence, sweeping a wider range of distancesfrom the star until the star reaches the tip of the asymptotic giantbranch. Currently there is no clear evidence as to when life actuallyformed on the Earth, but recent isotopic data suggest life existed atleast as early as 7×108 yr after the Earth was formed.Thus, if life could form and evolve over time intervals from5×108 to 109 yr, then there could behabitable planets with life around red giant stars. For a 1Msolar star at the first stages of its post-main-sequenceevolution, the temporal transit of the habitable zone is estimated to beseveral times 109 yr at 2 AU and around 108 yr at9 AU. Under these circumstances life could develop at distances in therange 2-9 AU in the environment of subgiant or giant stars, and in thefar distant future in the environment of our own solar system. After astar completes its first ascent along the red giant branch and the Heflash takes place, there is an additional stable period of quiescent Hecore burning during which there is another opportunity for life todevelop. For a 1 Msolar star there is an additional109 yr with a stable habitable zone in the region from 7 to22 AU. Space astronomy missions, such as proposed for the TerrestrialPlanet Finder (TPF) and Darwin, that focus on searches for signatures oflife on extrasolar planets, should also consider the environments ofsubgiants and red giant stars as potentially interesting sites forunderstanding the development of life. We performed a preliminaryevaluation of the difficulty of interferometric observations of planetsaround red giant stars compared to a main-sequence star environment. Weshow that pathfinder missions for TPF and Darwin, such as Eclipse andFKSI, have sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity to search forhabitable planets around some of the closest evolved stars of thesubgiant and red giant class.

Single-Visit Photometric and Obscurational Completeness
We report a method that uses ``completeness'' to estimate the number ofextrasolar planets discovered by an observing program with adirect-imaging instrument. We develop a completeness function forEarth-like planets on ``habitable'' orbits for an instrument with acentral field obscuration, uniform sensitivity in an annular detectionzone, and limiting sensitivity that is expressed as a ``deltamagnitude'' with respect to the star, determined by systematic effects(given adequate exposure time). We demonstrate our method of estimationby applying it to our understanding of the coronagraphic version of theTerrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-C) mission as of 2004 October. Weestablish an initial relationship between the size, quality, andstability of the instrument's optics and its ability to meet missionscience requirements. We provide options for increasing the fidelity andversatility of the models on which our method is based, and we discusshow the method could be extended to model the TPF-C mission as a wholeto verify that its design can meet the science requirements.

Three Low-Mass Planets from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search
We report the detection of three new low-mass planets from theAnglo-Australian Planet Search. The three parent stars of these planetsare chromospherically quiet main-sequence G dwarfs with metallicitiesranging from roughly solar (HD 117618 and HD 208487) to metal enriched(HD 102117). The orbital periods range from 20.8 to 130 days, theminimum masses from roughly 0.5MSat to 0.5MJup,and the eccentricities from 0.08 to 0.37, with the planet in thesmallest orbit (HD 102117) having the smallest eccentricity. Withsemiamplitudes of 10.6-19 m s-1, these planets induce Doppleramplitudes similar to those of Jupiter analogs, albeit with shorterperiods. Many of the most interesting future Doppler planets will bedetected at these semiamplitude levels, placing a premium on measurementprecision. The detection of such amplitudes in data extending back 6 yrgives confidence in the Anglo-Australian Planet Search's ability todetect Jupiter analogs as our time baseline extends to 12 yr. We discussthe criticality of such detections for the design of the next generationof extremely large telescopes and also highlight prospects for suitableobserving strategies to push to below 1 m s-1 precisions forbright stars in a search for sub-Neptunian planets.Based on observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope, SidingSpring, Australia.

The Planet-Metallicity Correlation
We have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determineTeff, logg, vsini, and [Fe/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on theKeck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. Thisis the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has beenmade for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identifya subset of 850 stars that have Doppler observations sufficient todetect uniformly all planets with radial velocity semiamplitudes K>30m s-1 and orbital periods shorter than 4 yr. From this subsetof stars, we determine that fewer than 3% of stars with-0.5<[Fe/H]<0.0 have Doppler-detected planets. Above solarmetallicity, there is a smooth and rapid rise in the fraction of starswith planets. At [Fe/H]>+0.3 dex, 25% of observed stars have detectedgas giant planets. A power-law fit to these data relates the formationprobability for gas giant planets to the square of the number of metalatoms. High stellar metallicity also appears to be correlated with thepresence of multiple-planet systems and with the total detected planetmass. This data set was examined to better understand the origin of highmetallicity in stars with planets. None of the expected fossilsignatures of accretion are observed in stars with planets relative tothe general sample: (1) metallicity does not appear to increase as themass of the convective envelopes decreases, (2) subgiants with planetsdo not show dilution of metallicity, (3) no abundance variations for Na,Si, Ti, or Ni are found as a function of condensation temperature, and(4) no correlations between metallicity and orbital period oreccentricity could be identified. We conclude that stars with extrasolarplanets do not have an accretion signature that distinguishes them fromother stars; more likely, they are simply born in higher metallicitymolecular clouds.Based on observations obtained at Lick and Keck Observatories, operatedby the University of California, and the Anglo-Australian Observatories.

Prospects for Habitable ``Earths'' in Known Exoplanetary Systems
We have examined whether putative Earth-mass planets could remainconfined to the habitable zones (HZs) of the 111 exoplanetary systemsconfirmed by 2004 August. We find that in about half of these systemsthere could be confinement for at least the past 1000 Myr, though insome cases only in variously restricted regions of the HZ. The HZmigrates outward during the main-sequence lifetime, and we find that inabout two-thirds of the systems an Earth-mass planet could be confinedto the HZ for at least 1000 Myr sometime during the main-sequencelifetime. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list forexploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached our conclusions bydetailed investigations of seven systems, which has resulted in anestimate of the distance from the giant planet within which orbitalstability is unlikely for an Earth-mass planet. This distance is givenby nRH, where RH is the Hill radius of the giantplanet and n is a multiplier that depends on the giant's orbitaleccentricity and on whether the Earth-mass planet is interior orexterior to the giant planet. We have estimated n for each of the sevensystems by launching Earth-mass planets in various orbits and followingtheir fate with a hybrid orbital integrator. We have then evaluated thehabitability of the other exoplanetary systems using nRHderived from the giant's orbital eccentricity without carrying outtime-consuming orbital integrations. A stellar evolution model has beenused to obtain the HZs throughout the main-sequence lifetime.

On the ages of exoplanet host stars
We obtained spectra, covering the CaII H and K region, for 49 exoplanethost (EH) stars, observable from the southern hemisphere. We measuredthe chromospheric activity index, R'{_HK}. We compiled previouslypublished values of this index for the observed objects as well as theremaining EH stars in an effort to better smooth temporal variations andderive a more representative value of the average chromospheric activityfor each object. We used the average index to obtain ages for the groupof EH stars. In addition we applied other methods, such as: Isochrone,lithium abundance, metallicity and transverse velocity dispersions, tocompare with the chromospheric results. The kinematic method is a lessreliable age estimator because EH stars lie red-ward of Parenago'sdiscontinuity in the transverse velocity dispersion vs dereddened B-Vdiagram. The chromospheric and isochrone techniques give median ages of5.2 and 7.4 Gyr, respectively, with a dispersion of 4 Gyr. The medianage of F and G EH stars derived by the isochrone technique is 1-2 Gyrolder than that of identical spectral type nearby stars not known to beassociated with planets. However, the dispersion in both cases is large,about 2-4 Gyr. We searched for correlations between the chromosphericand isochrone ages and L_IR/L* (the excess over the stellarluminosity) and the metallicity of the EH stars. No clear tendency isfound in the first case, whereas the metallicy dispersion seems toslightly increase with age.

Sulphur abundance in Galactic stars
We investigate sulphur abundance in 74 Galactic stars by using highresolution spectra obtained at ESO VLT and NTT telescopes. For the firsttime the abundances are derived, where possible, from three opticalmultiplets: Mult. 1, 6, and 8. By combining our own measurements withdata in the literature we assemble a sample of 253 stars in themetallicity range -3.2  [Fe/H]  +0.5. Two important features,which could hardly be detected in smaller samples, are obvious from thislarge sample: 1) a sizeable scatter in [S/Fe] ratios around [Fe/H]˜-1; 2) at low metallicities we observe stars with [S/Fe]˜ 0.4, aswell as stars with higher [S/Fe] ratios. The latter do not seem to bekinematically different from the former ones. Whether the latter findingstems from a distinct population of metal-poor stars or simply from anincreased scatter in sulphur abundances remains an open question.

Abundances of Na, Mg and Al in stars with giant planets
We present Na, Mg and Al abundances in a set of 98 stars with knowngiant planets, and in a comparison sample of 41 “single”stars. The results show that the [X/H] abundances (with X = Na, Mg andAl) are, on average, higher in stars with giant planets, a resultsimilar to the one found for iron. However, we did not find any strongdifference in the [X/Fe] ratios, for a fixed [Fe/H], between the twosamples of stars in the region where the samples overlap. The data wasused to study the Galactic chemical evolution trends for Na, Mg and Aland to discuss the possible influence of planets on this evolution. Theresults, similar to those obtained by other authors, show that the[X/Fe] ratios all decrease as a function of metallicity up to solarvalues. While for Mg and Al this trend then becomes relatively constant,for Na we find indications of an upturn up to [Fe/H] values close to0.25 dex. For metallicities above this value the [Na/Fe] becomesconstant.

Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's disk
We have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratiosfrom the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of severalalpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of theGalaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg,Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H]< +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences betweenabundances measured in the different studies were lower than randomerrors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions fromHipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreivedfor 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits havebeen computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesianmethod of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative ofthe thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account theHercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probabledynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemicallywell separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both showparallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in theinterval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respectto Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even largerenhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than thethin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus instar formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observea vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Herculesstream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a widerrange of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk andsuper-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers inall their properties.

Spectroscopic metallicities for planet-host stars: Extending the samples
We present stellar parameters and metallicities for 29 planet-hoststars, as well as for a large volume-limited sample of 53 stars notknown to be orbited by any planetary-mass companion. These stars add tothe results presented in our previous series of papers, providing twolarge and uniform samples of 119 planet-hosts and 94“single” stars with accurate stellar parameters and [Fe/H]estimates. The analysis of the results further confirms that stars withplanets are metal-rich when compared with average field dwarfs.Important biases that may compromise future studies are also discussed.Finally, we compare the metallicity distributions for singleplanet-hosts and planet-hosts in multiple stellar systems. The resultsshow that a small difference cannot be excluded, in the sense that thelatter sample is slighly overmetallic. However, more data are needed toconfirm this correlation.

Stability of planetary orbits in binary systems
Stability of S-type and P-type planetary orbits in binary systems ofdifferent mass and separation ratios is investigated. Criteria forstable, marginally stable and unstable planetary orbits are specified.These criteria are used to determine regions of stability of planetaryorbits in different binary systems with Jupiter-type planets. Theobtained results show that the regions of stability for S-type orbitsdepend on the distance ratio between the star and planet, and thestellar companions, in the range of 0.22 and 0.46, depending on the massratio. For P-type orbits, the regions of stability also depend on thatdistance ratio, in the range of 1.75 and 2.45, again depending on thethe mass ratio. Applications of these results to three observed binarysystems with giant planets, namely, τ Boo, HD 195019 and GJ 86, showthat the orbits of the giant planets in those systems can be classifiedas stable, as expected.

α-, r-, and s-process element trends in the Galactic thin and thick disks
From a detailed elemental abundance analysis of 102 F and G dwarf starswe present abundance trends in the Galactic thin and thick disks for 14elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Y, Ba, and Eu).Stellar parameters and elemental abundances (except for Y, Ba and Eu)for 66 of the 102 stars were presented in our previous studies (Bensbyet al. [CITE], A&A, 410, 527, [CITE], A&A, 415, 155). The 36stars that are new in this study extend and confirm our previous resultsand allow us to draw further conclusions regarding abundance trends. Thes-process elements Y and Ba, and the r-element Eu have also beenconsidered here for the whole sample for the first time. With this newlarger sample we now have the following results: 1) smooth and distinctabundance trends that for the thin and thick disks are clearlyseparated; 2) the α-element trends for the thick disk show typicalsignatures from the enrichment of SN Ia; 3) the thick disk stellarsample is in the mean older than the thin disk stellar sample; 4) thethick disk abundance trends are invariant with galactocentric radii(R_m); 5) the thick disk abundance trends appear to be invariant withvertical distance (Z_max) from the Galactic plane. Adding furtherevidence from the literaure we argue that a merger/interacting scenariowith a companion galaxy to produce a kinematical heating of the stars(that make up today's thick disk) in a pre-existing old thin disk is themost likely formation scenario for the Galactic thick disk. The 102stars have -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4 and are all in the solarneighbourhood. Based on their kinematics they have been divided into athin disk sample and a thick disk sample consisting of 60 and 38 stars,respectively. The remaining 4 stars have kinematics that make themkinematically intermediate to the two disks. Their chemical abundancesalso place them in between the two disks. Which of the two diskpopulations these 4 stars belong to, or if they form a distinctpopulation of their own, can at the moment not be settled. The 66 starsfrom our previous studies were observed with the FEROS spectrograph onthe ESO 1.5-m telescope and the CES spectrograph on the ESO 3.6-mtelescope. Of the 36 new stars presented here 30 were observed with theSOFIN spectrograph on the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, 3 withthe UVES spectrograph on VLT/UT2, and 3 with the FEROS spectrograph onthe ESO 1.5-m telescope. All spectra have high signal-to-noise ratios(typically S/N≳ 250) and high resolution (R˜ 80 000, 45 000,and 110 000 for the SOFIN, FEROS, and UVES spectra, respectively).Based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope on LaPalma, Spain, and at the European Southern Observatories on La Silla andParanal, Chile, Proposals # 65.L-0019(B), 67.B-0108(B), 69.B-0277. FullTables [see full text], [see full text] and [see full text] are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/433/185

Planets in multiple-star systems:properties and detections
Orbital properties of extra-solar planets are briefly recalled andcompared with equivalent features of stellar binaries. Similarities anddifferences are discussed. Among the more than 115 extra-solar planetsdiscovered to date, 19 are orbiting a component of a binary system. Wediscuss the properties of this subsample and compare them with theequivalent characteristics of planets around single stars. Differencesin the mass-period-eccentricity distributions are observed: exoplanetswith m[2]sini > 2 M [Jup] and P ≤ 40-100 days are in binaries andpresent low eccentricities. In the context of the migration scenario,these characteristics are tentatively explained in the light of recentsimulations of planet-disk interactions showing an increased accretionand migration rates of planets in case an additional perturbing closestellar companion is present in the system. Finally, differentobservational approaches to find planets in long-period spectroscopicbinaries aiming to improve the still poor available statistics arepresented. An important result is the detection of a planetary companionin the HD 41004 triple system.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:20h03m37.40s
Apparent magnitude:5.71
Distance:15.893 parsecs
Proper motion RA:683.7
Proper motion Dec:-524.3
B-T magnitude:6.661
V-T magnitude:5.811

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names
HD 1989HD 190360
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 2153-2883-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1125-14995168
BSC 1991HR 7670
HIPHIP 98767

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